Nineteenth century marked the beginning of Romantic Movement. In the period from1770 to 1840, the utmost literary movement was romanticism, which saw many people discover their countries beauty. This period marked a sensible shift in art and literature to reliance of man and nature. Romanticism changed the perception of people radically in terms of their surroundings. This was through its emphasis on the importance of realistic imagination, emotions, and feelings as opposed to thoughts and reasons. Romanticism became a value that was accepted as a literary movement. The interest of philosophers became a growing phenomenon with a robust of philosophical concept for them to learn (Zaibert, 2007). The 19th century, marked a strong romanticism movement that outweighed all other romantic movement that followed.
Romanticism in the nineteenth century allowed people view life sentimentally and for them to concentrate on an emotional way. People were able to drift from rational and constricted view of life (Budick 1996). Romanticism in this era was a contrast of enlightenment ideas featuring harmony that influenced doctrines of politics and ideology. Growth of romanticism concentrated on the diversity of human with a new view of life. It embraced emotions as the new viewpoint of life as opposed to classicism that was rational. Romanticism was open-minded and had a system that highlighted the feelings and the emotions of people in the manner that they thought. The characteristics of these romantic poetry expressed inner feelings and emotions of individuals.
Romantic Movement gave rise to realism and symbolism, which were development of diverse literary. They were felt in poetry, theater, and prose fiction. Most of the romanticism in this era used roman noir, historical novel, and gothic novel. Romanticism ideals were diametrically against classicism and had its bases on fame and money. Honor, which was the major idea of poet, was now a minor thing in this era. Additionally, the aspects of imagination, nature, symbolism, myth, lyric poetry, and emotions characterized romanticism in the 19th century. Romanticism presented imagination as the human creative power on the bases of nature as a work of art. Symbolisms were used to suggest many things simultaneously. Symbolisms and myths were preferred to express the desires that were inexpressible in the layman's language. Romanticism leaders of this era especially Schlegel emphasized on love. They believed that love was the highest form of enjoyment in aesthetic, which could be realized among equal beings that were free.
Many leaders who influenced poet in terms of feelings and emotion characterized Romantic Movement in the 19th century. They used various styles to poetry their ideas of even inexpressible feelings and emotions. The two examples of romantic leaders discussed here are Friedrich Schlegel and his brother August Wilhelm. Schlegel and Wilhelm got permanent place as critical leaders in the history of German literature. They were both responsible for the characteristic of governing ideas in the romantic school. Schlegel was a figure that conserved Romantic Movement through his transformed work after 1808 (Zaibert, 2007).
The philosophical view of the Romantic Movement was an essentially historical enterprise with Schlegel philosophy having its bases on development of human science. He contributed to naturphilosophie and merits of serious attention. Schlegel made a distinction of classical and romantic work, which made a beginning of distinctly privileging romanticism. His unique philosophical position gave deeper insight to the contribution of prominent figures in the German's philosophical development in the period of immediate post-Kant (Zaibert, 2007). Schlegel envisioning of Roman's romanticism was an element of a great project of poetry and aesthetics, which were concerned with finding judgment of standard and appropriate for the artistic and literary work individuality.
On the other side, August Wilhelm was considered a German's Romantic Movement fonder even though his writing was underrated. He was among the prominent philosophy disseminators in German, Britain, and abroad Ernst, 2002). He was a decisive figure in the modern and early growth of comparative literature. This was through Wilhelm's knowledge that was outstanding in history, literature, art, foreign languages and anthropology. Kart reading inspired Wilhelm's philosophical analysis of artist and art. Wilhelm was able to develop his poetology though this inspiration. He considered dramatic poetry as the most entertainment diversion. His fundamental reason lied on the mimicry involved in theatrical symbol. Wilhelm maintained that all theatrical symbols and art works were expression of a country's idiosyncrasies. According to Wilhelm, enjoyment of mimicry was constitutive of people (Ernst, 2002).
The 1917 Bolsheviks revolution of Russia also known as the Russian revolution was marked by two revolutions (Carr, 1985). The first was the February revolution where provisional government got into power after Tsar resigned from his throne. The second one was of October where Bolsheviks conquered the provisional government. It was the beginning of a long transformation for the western world since it did not lead to independent. It led to the begging of struggle for independence that started from 1918 to 1940. Twenty-two years marked a long period of struggle for the western people. Therefore, Bolsheviks revolution was important for the struggle to gain independence.
Two weeks before the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, Lenin convened a top-secret meeting. The key leaders in the party of Bolshevik made a decision that was fateful to seize power in a takeover that was violent (Carr, 1985). The decisive gathering had six Jews, four Russian, one Georgian, and one Pole. The long struggle for western world was triggered by various reasons that led to Bolsheviks Revolution. The major reason was the dissatisfaction of the existing conditions, which were hopeless for people. During this period, heavy taxes were imposed on people and they were forced to pay them. Additionally, food was scarce and the gap between the poor and the rich was widening on a daily bases.
There was so much support for government in aid of war from voluntary communities. Disaster was predicted to but the emperor ignored all the warnings. Strikes and demonstrations over the issues of food crisis and wages grew. Demonstrated resisted the force of police and refused to disperse from the streets. Demonstrators were broader the following days and more violence was experienced leading to casualties. The result of this was confrontation of solder and the demonstrators. In a conference meeting, Bolsheviks army organized a protest against an offence of July. Soviets transient of power was to be followed by peace offer to the belligerents (Carr, 1985). This party was organized and had slogans that were clear and easy to understand. Many people became members of this party and were able to overthrow the provisional government that seemed to lack focus.
Bolsheviks prevailed in the civil war because of the weakness and unpopularity of the provisional Government (Carr, 1985). The attack caught Russia by surprise and nobody was ready to defend it. Bolsheviks had clear slogans that were good and outstanding when compared to other parties that had complicated slogans for people to understand. The party had it own machines for newspaper printing, which helped in passing their ideas that enhanced public attention and support. Additionally, Bolsheviks were able to publicly campaign through the finances they received from German. Lenin organized a private army that was dedicated for the revolution. Latin was also a very good planner and a brilliant speaker with a key goal of overthrowing the government (Carr, 1985). On the other side, Bolsheviks were organized in a brilliant way and demanded total obedience of its members unlike other parties that were not organized. Members of Bolsheviks followed the orders of their leaders, which made the party to be more united and strong.
Fascism, Nazism, and Communism as forms of totalitarian
Totalitarianism is a system of rule ideologically driven in quest of a course of all aspects of political, public activity, social, and economic that theoretically that deny individuals freedom. It is distinguished by well-built central rule that challenge the direction of all aspects. In simple term, it is ideologically authoritarian. Totalitarian is the exercise of control over will, freedom, and thought of others. The state limits and regulates all aspects of private life under feasibility.
Benito and other World War veteran founded fascism as a form of government founded. They were fed up with the decisions of Italians. They came up with fascism a form of dictatorship ruling that gives a country pride. Italian fascism was not a form of totalitarian though it came with the name. Fascism was strict and cruel but not as the Communist Russia and Nazi Germany (Arendt, 1973). Its ideology called for extreme industrialization, advanced agriculture, and security of the society. Fascism was anti socialism and its government made sure that there was faster decision making, simpler solutions, and solved problems. In the 20th century, Fascism was a new style of activism that was aggressive and prized violence. It rejected racism and imperialism but accepted national liberation. Duce accepted to be convinced to introduce Nazi style by the end of 1937. German's ally participation in World War II in 1943 brought the downfall of Mussolini (Arendt, 1973).
In the civil war of 1944-1945, thirteen thousand or more fascists were lost and the officials purge of fascists limited. Fascists had various weaknesses that led to its failure. It promoted violence as an act of creating a national rebirth. Additionally, it created war for the sake of renaissance of the country where it was applied. It was anti-individualism and anti-communism with application of dictatorship. Governance based on fascism was authoritative with commands and direction being one sided. It was challenged by Nazi style in totality. Fascist ideology repudiated irrational violence to humans despite the prediction (Arendt, 1973).
In the regimes of totalitarian of the 20th century, Stalin empowered Hitler and Nazi. This was despite the alliance of Nazi-Communist of 1939 to 1941. Nazism was a form of ruling style established in German. Carl Schmitt a Nazism philosopher was able to advance the concept of totalitarian to the liberal state. Strong authoritarian that pursued total control characterized Nazism and communism. These structures have total mobilization of all material resources (Arendt, 1973). The reason for failure of these styles laid in their strictness. The government was in total control. Cruelty was another characteristic that led to the failure of these movements. People were dissatisfied with the strictness and cruelty of the leaders. They rejected these form of governance and overthrown the leaders.
In conclusion, 19th century was an important era in the history of poetry.
This is because it marked the beginning of romanticism, which was a movement in poet that influenced creativity of poetry since then to the modern time. Many leaders influenced this era and helped human beings to express their feelings and emotions that were inexpressible. On the other side, Bolsheviks revolution was an important period in the history of Russia. This is not because of the struggle that the Russians went through but because it was a starting point for the Russian in the struggle to get independence, which they got after twenty-two years of struggle in unity. Never the less, all the forms of totalitarian were common in the way the rules were strict and cruel. The rules were dictatorship in nature with total control.